R. N. MEMORIAL CLINIC
New Born & Child Care Clinic & Vaccination Centre
011-65818159,25251804
Guidelines for Parents
There are so many childhood problems which we need to take care of such as Diarrhoea,Common Cold, Fever.
Baby Care
Give only breast milk for six months of life.Do not give water,ghuttis,gripe water,tonics or any other form of milk.
Vaccination
vaccination protects children against serious diseases by stimulating the immune system against disease germs.
Child Safety
Always know what your child is doing.Put your child in playpen or crib if you are not around.

Basic Care

Give only breast milk for six months of life
Do not give water,ghuttis,gripe water,tonics or any other form of milk

What kind of clothes should be kept ready for baby at delivery
A vest, afull-sleeve frock, a napkin, a cap and socks would be required even in summer. In winter, 2or 3 additional layers of woolen clothes are necessary.The baby should be warpped in a double layer of cottonsheet in summer and woolen blankets in winter. Addtional clothes may be necessary in extremely cold conditions when baby is small and weak.

The baby's clothes should be made of natural fabric (cotton or wool).Avoid synthetic stuff
Babies need proper clothes, which covers them properly especially head,hands and feet.They should not be over clothes as well.
babies pass watery stools after first 3-4 days of life esspecially after feeding which is normal for them.
A baby who is feeding well, will be passing urine at least 6 times a day.
Babies don't need any Kajal,Surma,Talcum powder or daily bath.Delay bath till umbilical cord falls.
Vaccination is the most cost-effective way of heath for children.

Routine use of ready made napkins
Cloth or disponsible , you may choose either
Cloth diapers:Softer,inexpensive but need to be washed separately with soap and water
Disposable diapers:Expensive,comfortable but need frequent change and air drying of groin area.


Normal urination patters of new born babies
Must pass urinate within 48 hours of birth.Normal baby may pass urine every half an hour or only 4-5 times a day during the first weeks of life.Some babies cry before passing urine due to disconfort of a full bladder.

Normal stool pattern of neonates
Passes the first stool within 24 hours.The stool are black and tar-like in the appearance during the first 2 or 3 days.Fir the next 1 or 2 days the stools are greenish in color. Later ,the stools in a breast fed baby are golden yellow and semiloose in consistency. May pass small amount of stools every time there is passage of wind or soon after every feed.Frequencey may be as much 8-12 stools per day or even more. As long as the stools are not watery,do not contain blood or mucus,the baby is ganing weight and is not otherwise unwell,no treatment is required.

Sometimes newborn babies may pass stools once in 3-4 days.If stools are of normal consitency and appearance,usually there is no cause of concerns.
Hiccups
Hiccups and sneezing are common and normal

When should the umbilical stump fall?What care we should take for umbilical cord?
Usually falls anytime between 1 to 2 weeks after birth.Sometimes there is a minimal ooze of blood or secretions,It is normal. Keep this area as clean and dry as possible.Do not cover it with diaper.Keep the area of umbilical stump clean with sprit.

baby vomiting after feed
All babies throw up some amount of curdled milk soon after feeds.Swallowed air is expelled out of the stomach along with the ingested milk. Good burbing after each feed will take care of this problem.

Is enlargement of baby's breast a normal phenomenon
It occurs due to transfer of harmones from mother to baby through the placenta.Avoid local massage and fomentation.Never try to express the milk.The engorgement spontaneously disappears.

Bleeding from vagina or sometimes a white discharge
Menstrual like Vaginal bleeding may occur in some female infant after 3-5 days of birth.The bleeding is mild and lasts for 3-4 days.It does not need any specific treatment except local cleaning.Similarly whitish dischange from the cervical canaldue to withdrawal of hormones.

Cradle cap
Yellow,oily patches of scaling on your infant's scalp,your baby is a form of seborrheic dermatitis,also known as cradle cap. It affects many infants from about two weeks to six months of age.

Use a mild baby shampoo regularly.You can gently remove any loose scales with your fingertip or with a soft baby brush.Do not scrub the area vigorously or try to remove any resistent scales. To looses, you can apply olive oil or baby oil and allow soaking into the scalp before shampooing. After they are removed do not use oil on the scalp.

Burping
In addition to sucking milk, a baby also tends to swallow air,Excess air swallowed by him during his feed,especially while drinking breast milk, is released. Lay him upright against your shoulder (tummy against your chest),while gently patting him or rubbing his back.

Diaper contains an orange red streak with urine
It is not uncommon to have urate crystals in the urine,which have an orange or red,brick dust color,in an infant's diaper.This is normal.

Blue spot on the buttocks
These are called Mongolian spots.These spots are flat blue or gray birthmarks on a newborn's body.

Although most commonly located on a baby's lower back and buttocks,They can also occur on other areas of their body.They often fade as a child gets older.

Red pimples on the face
Baby acne is a common occurence.Babies usually get whiteheads,blackheads, and pustules on their nose,scalp,cheeks and forehead. There skin may also appear red and rough.No treatment is usually required as they are self limiting in 6 months.Vigorous washing and scrubbing and using moisturizers and other creams and lotions,can make baby acne worse.Gentle cleansing with water along,or a mild soap, is usually the best treatment.

Descent of testes
3 to 5 percent of male infants have an undescended testicle when they are born.many of these will descend on their own by the time a baby is three months old,but after that,there is little chance that they will. This needs to be evaluated by your pediatrician.

Neonatal jaundice
Babies develop yellow tinge over the face and upper part of the trunk starting on day 2nd or 3rd of life. It spontaneously disappears in 10-14 days.If the yellowness appears on the first day itself,or involves the legs,palms or soles,It requires attention. Consult your pediatrician immediately.Phototherapy is the available treatment.In extreme cases blood exchange might be required.Adequate feeding is the only way by which its severity can be decreased.Sun bathing has no role in treatment of neonatal jaundice.

position for sleep for infants
All infants should be put on the back while sleeping to prevent the risk of choking.Pillow should not be used. Matress should be firm and not soft.However,parents should encourage tummy time when the body is awake and under continuous observation.

Normal sleeping pattern for newborn babies
Babies sleep an average of 16 hours a day.Sleeping patterns will evolve only after the child is one year old. It is normal for a baby to stay awake at night and sleep more during daytime for initial couple of days. It's perfectly okay to start the fan or even the AC if it is too hot.

An Intramuscular injection of vitamin at birth
Vitamin K is administered within two hours of life to each baby to prevent bleeding disorders.It is given universally and is harmless.

How often should the baby be feed?
Give feeds on a semi demend schedule.It means that th efeeds are offered as amny times as demended by the baby. Baby should be put on the breast if more than 3-4 hours have elapsed since the last feed.

If there is enough mother milk,there is absolutely no need for any kind of top feed for a normal full term baby

Bathing the baby
For first one or two days,only sponging is required.take cotton or soft cloth and rinse it in lukewarm water.Please ask your pediatrician about choice of soap.

Massage
Massage helps the baby to relax and stimultes him.Coconut,olive or any vegetable oil can be used.Avoid mustard oil as it is irritating.After the bath,It is advisable to use some baby oil or moisturized.

Soft spot on the top of head
This is because the bones of the skull have not joined completely.It is called fontanel and will unite gradually,by the time your baby is 9 to 18 months old.

Colic
It is because fo swallowed air during feeds and inadequate burping.This air passes from the stomach into the intenstine,giving rise to pain and disconmfort.This results in colic.For relief,hold the baby in the 'burping'position'.Do not give any kind of medication (including gripe water) until you consult your doctor.

Handling the baby
Talking and touching your baby helps in bonding.The newborn's fingernails should be trimmed/filed after cleaning with spirit about once a week,and his toenails once a month,to prevent him from scratching himself and others.Deepending on the climate,open a few windows in the room or take the baby for a small stroll.However,avoid taking the child to a crowded place. Do not give or allow anyone to give the baby any drinks from outside.Also,avoid travelling with the child for at least three months.

Persistent flow of tears from eyes
Gently massage over the inner angle of the eye near its junstion with nose two to three times a day for 3-4 months,this helps in opening of blockage of a duct connecting the nose and eyes.If the problem persists please consult an eye specialist.

Normal temperature in babies
It ranges from 36.5 degree celcius to 38 degree celcius.Thebulb of the thermometer should be placed vertically in axilla,so that it is between arm and chest wall.Keep the thermometer for at least 3 minutes.There is no need to add 1 degree celcius in this temperature.Never place thermometer in the moouth of a baby.

Normal room temperature for baby
The mother should feel slight warmth but not discomfort. Heater/blower/air conditioner can be switched on ,with keeping in mind that the room should be comfortable warm for parents.If room thermometer is avaialble,environmental temperature around 26 degree celcius is advisable for term,healthy neonates.

Giving water to the baby
Breast milk contains 97% water and it is sufficient for babies.No water is required till 6 months of age

Expected weight gain
Neonates lose 5-10% of birth weight during first week of life and regain their birth weight by 7-10 days. Afterwards they gain approximately 25-30 grams per day that means near about 900g in one month till one month.Theie birth weigh is doubled by 5 months of age and by one year it's three times of birth weigh.

Role of vitamins and tonics for newborn babies
Routine supplementation of babies with vitamins and tonics is necessary except for special circumstances e.g. premature or low birth weight babies (<1.8 kg birth weight).